vii) Gender Differences Start Early

. It has been claimed that these gender differences start early, ie

"...gender differences start as young as two years old; in general terms...... girls are more interested in entertainment that is relationship-orientated and boys are more action orientated......A study of pre-school children showed that during confrontations between two children of the same sex, boys were more than twice as likely to use heavy-handed persuasion, defined as physical force or threats, than more peaceful forms of conducting a dispute. In almost all cases, girls are more likely to try to talk their way out of confrontation rather than use physical force.....a child is not just a pre-programmed bundle of genes. Upbringing and socialisation have a great deal to do with behaviour..."

Robert Winston, 2002

Furthermore, it is claimed by evolutionary psychologists

"...males have to compete, and competition involves aggression, action and pointless dangerous activities. And there is another, more practical reason for a non-violent mentality to become an all common female trait. Given the need to suckle their infants......women would have spent more time with their children; they took the role of primary care giver. We can speculate that women who were more emphatic, caring and less prone to violence and aggression would make a better job of child-rearing..."

Robert Winston, 2002

. It has been demonstrated that women use constant chatting as a means of bonding, ie

"...Women don't need a reason to talk and don't need an end goal. They talk to make a connection with others..."

Alan Pease et al, 2002


"...when interrupted, men tended to stop speaking, while women, in all-women or mixed meetings, tend to overlap in an energetic way punctuated with lots of laughter......They were quiet when the agenda moved to matters outside their expertise, while men spoke even when they knew little about the topic. One man admitted he spoke up even when he had nothing to contribute because he was ambitious and wanted to impress..."

Lyndall Crisp, 2005

. In meeting context it is claimed that men tend to compete for a turn to speak while women tended to talk over each other, but were more collaborative


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